Ancient Dwarka: Study based on recent underwater archaeological investigations
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Dwarka, one of the best-studied underwater sites in India, has commanded much attraction, also because the site is considered as one of the sour Dhamas (sacred place for pilgrimage) of the Hindu religion. According to ancient Sanskrit literature, the Lord Krishna founded the holy city of Dwarka, which subsequently got submerged under sea. Marine archaeological explorations off Dwarka have brought to light a large number of stone structures, which are semicircular, rectangular and square in shape in water depth ranging from inter tidal zone to 6 m. They are randomly scattered over area. Besides these structures, a large number of varieties of stone anchors have been noticed along the structures as well as beyond 6 m water depth. These findings suggest that Dwarka was one of the most busy port centers during the past on the west coast of India. The comparative study of surrounding sites indicates that the date of the structures of Dwarka may be between Historical period and late medieval period. The paper reviews the earlier hypothesis about the identification and dating of these structures in light of new evidences from the recent underwater explorations.
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